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Science + Astronomy
Explore some of the mysteries of the cosmos. These news articles deal with all things science and astronomy. Black holes, gamma ray bursts, supernovas etc.


'City-Killer' space rocks : Sentinel satellite to launch in 2018
Science-Astronomy
April 22, 2014
  • New research has revealed asteroids hit Earth more often than first thought
  • Announcement was made by former astronauts at the B612 Foundation
  • From 2000 to 2013 former astronauts studied explosion data on Earth
  • They found 26 instances were likely caused by asteroids exploding high up in the atmosphere
  • This makes impacts up to ten times more common than original estimates
  • However, the majority of the impacts occurred in unpopulated areas including the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
  • Researchers have proposed a satellite to detect asteroids before they hit
  • The Sentinel satellite would launch in 2018 and would find 500,000 by 2024

Sentinel Satellite Asteroid Impact

 
Asteroids cause dozens of nuclear-scale blasts in Earth's atmosphere
Science-Astronomy
April 22, 2014
asteroid threat nuclear explosion
Asteroids caused 26 nuclear-scale explosions in the Earth's atmosphere between 2000 and 2013, a new report reveals. Some were more powerful – in one case, dozens of times stronger – than the atom bomb blast that destroyed Hiroshima in 1945 with an energy yield equivalent to 16 kilotons of TNT.

Most occurred too high in the atmosphere to cause any serious damage on the ground. But the evidence was a sobering reminder of how vulnerable the Earth was to the threat from space, scientists said. The impacts were recorded by the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation, which operates a global network of sensors set up to detect nuclear weapon detonations. None of the asteroids were picked up or tracked in advance by any space- or Earth-based observatory.
 
The Scientific Revolution: Bringing an Extinction Level Event Right To Your Door
Science-Astronomy
April 07, 2014
I’m not quite old enough yet to spend my days considering how I, as an individual, will die. I have seen so many things in my former life in the hospital that it would be almost impossible to pick one as the most likely cause of my demise.

Increasingly I have considered that what finishes me off will most likely take a whole load of other people with me. A nuclear winter from Yellowstone popping off cutting the food supply, a pandemic like Ebola sweeping the globe, bad weather causing widespread famine or maybe a solar flare ending life as we know it. All of these things could, and possibly would be what I call an AELE…an Almost Extinction Level Event. I say almost because all of them would see some people surviving, and hopefully one of them would be me.

The last year or so though, my thoughts have drifted from an AELE, to a total ELE, an Extinction Level Event that actually kills off the entire human race.

 
Society Is Doomed, Scientists Claim
Science-Astronomy
March 20, 2014
society is doomed

There's never been a shortage of doomsday scenarios. From the dreaded Mayan Apocalypse of 2012 (remember that?) to the havoc wreaked in the movie "The Day After Tomorrow," people have been predicting the end of civilization for as long as there has been a civilization.

The trouble is, they're sometimes correct: The Roman Empire fell spectacularly, as did the Mayan civilization, the Han Dynasty of China, India's Gupta Empire and dozens of other once-mighty kingdoms.

But how, exactly, do powerful empires collapse, and why? Researchers now believe they've found an answer, one that has troubling implications for today — because we're clearly on the road to ruin.
 
Destructive solar blasts narrowly missed Earth in 2012
Science-Astronomy
March 20, 2014

Fierce solar blasts that could have badly damaged electrical grids and disabled satellites in space narrowly missed Earth in 2012, U.S. researchers said on Wednesday.

The bursts would have wreaked havoc on the Earth's magnetic field, matching the severity of the 1859 Carrington event, the largest solar magnetic storm ever reported on the planet. That blast knocked out the telegraph system across the United States, according to University of California, Berkeley research physicist Janet Luhmann.

"Had it hit Earth, it probably would have been like the big one in 1859, but the effect today, with our modern technologies, would have been tremendous," Luhmann said in a statement.

 
Earth's Greatest Extinction Hardly Changed Ocean Ways of Life
Science-Astronomy
February 24, 2014
greatest extinction

Earth's largest mass extinction had surprisingly little effect on the range of lifestyles seen on the planet's seafloor, despite the loss of more than 90 percent of marine species, researchers find.

Understanding the impacts of this ancient extinction event may shed light on the damage climate change might now inflict on the planet, the scientists say.

The end-Permian mass extinction, which occurred 252 million years ago, was the biggest die-off in the planet's history, and the largest of the five mass extinctions seen in the fossil record. The cataclysm killed as much as 95 percent of all species on Earth.  [LS]

 
Asteroid to hurtle past the Earth at 27,000 mph
Science-Astronomy
February 17, 2014
asteroid 2000 EM26

A ‘potentially hazardous’ asteroid which is three times the size of a football pitch and travelling at 27,000 miles an hour will pass close to Earth on Monday night.

Although the speeding chunk of rock – named 2000 EM26 – will be 1.6 million miles away it still represents a close shave for our planet in astronomical terms.

It will be tracked by the online Slooh Space Camera which monitors asteroids but scientists say it poses no threat to Earth.

 
Sunspot Larger than Jupiter, and Still Unleashing More Flares
Science-Astronomy
February 11, 2014
sunspot AR 1944 threat to earth

As most Americans go about their daily lives without care or concern for what’s happening around them, 92 million miles away a catastrophic threat may well be in the making.

In January, the NOAA identified a sizable sun spot dubbed AR 1944. Within hours of warnings being issued about the potential for this particular region of the sun to cause earth-directed coronal mass ejections it sent an X-class solar flare our way. While powerful, that particular flare and the subsequent M-class flares were not strong enough to cause any significant disruptions on earth.

But as the spot rotated to the other side of the sun things got interesting… and ever more dangerous for the people of earth.

AR1944 has since been renamed to AR1967, and the region is now more active than it was in January. According to sky photographer John Chumack, AR1967 has grown considerably. It is now wider than Jupiter. That’s big. So big, in fact, that you can fit over 100 earth-sized planets into it. [FULL STORY]

 
Sun Goes Wild: Earth Directed X-Class Flare Is On Its Way; Chance Of More
Science-Astronomy
January 07, 2014
x class solar flare 2014

This morning The Daily Sheeple reported that the biggest sun spot in recent history had been identified on the sun and that it had moved into position facing earth. The spot is so large that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says it could swallow three earths.

The spot was mostly quiet for the last few days and wasn’t directly facing earth, though a smaller Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) glanced the planet in the early hours of January 7th.

Then at 12:32 Central Time it went wild: [SHTFPLAN]

 
Sun's Current Solar Activity Cycle Is Weakest in a Century
Science-Astronomy
December 14, 2013
solar cycle lowest in century
The sun's current space-weather cycle is the most anemic in 100 years, scientists say.

Our star is now at "solar maximum," the peak phase of its 11-year activity cycle. But this solar max is weak, and the overall current cycle, known as Solar Cycle 24, conjures up comparisons to the famously feeble Solar Cycle 14 in the early 1900s, researchers said.

"None of us alive have ever seen such a weak cycle. So we will learn something," Leif Svalgaard of Stanford University told reporters here today (Dec. 11) at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union.  [SPACE]

 
Earth's Greatest Killer Finally Caught
Science-Astronomy
December 12, 2013
earths greatest killer disaster
Geology is partly detective work, and scientists now have enough evidence to book a suspect in the biggest environmental catastrophe in Earth's history.

Painstaking analysis of rocks from China and Russia prove the culprit is a series of massive volcanic eruptions, which flooded ancient Siberia with thick lava flows just before Earth's worst mass extinction almost 252 million years ago, researchers said here yesterday (Dec. 11) at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union. Thanks to new computer models of the eruption's devastating effects, and detailed mapping of rocks deposited around the time of the mass dying, researchers now have their best case ever for pinning the extinction on the enormous lava outpouring.

 
“Solar Flares… Will Short Circuit Satellites, Power Grids, Ground Comm. Equipment”
Science-Astronomy
December 11, 2013
worst case scenario disaster
Researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder recently completed analyzing data from a Coronal Mass Ejection that took place in the summer of 2012. The CME, which was reportedly the most powerful electrical discharge ever recorded from the sun, narrowly missed earth. It was not “earth directed,” meaning the electro-magnetic mass was ejected by the sun when it was facing away from our planet. However, had it occurred just a week prior, the highly charged particles would have struck earth and, according to CU-Boulder Professor Daniel Baker, would have led to nothing short of a technological disaster across the globe.

The CME itself was massive… and its speed was unprecedented, clocking in at 7 million miles per hour. [SHTFPLAN]

 
From sunspots to solar eruptions: Amateur astronomer captures incredible images of sun
Science-Astronomy
December 05, 2013
amateur sun pictures amazing
  • Jose Manteca from Begues, near Barcelona, took the photos from a small observatory on the terrace of his house
  • The 54-year-old says he spends hours on the terrace gazing into space, hoping to spot scintillating solar activity
  • He has developed a technique to take 15 images per second using a humble DSLR camera and a solar telescope
  • Images include stunning close-ups of solar prominences, sunspots and even a plane crossing the face of the sun

Despite being 93 million miles from the sun, amateur astronomer Jose Manteca has captured these stunning shots from his back garden. Mr Manteca, who works as a sales representative, installed a small observatory on the terrace of his house in 2011. Ever since he has used a humble DSLR camera to capture breathtaking shots - including solar prominences, sunspots and even a plane crossing the face of the sun.
 
Calm solar cycle prompts questions about impact on Earth
Science-Astronomy
November 25, 2013
sun solar cycle 2013
The surface of the sun has been surprisingly calm of late -- with fewer sunspots than anytime in in the last century -- prompting curious scientists to wonder just what it might mean here on Earth.

Sunspots have been observed for millennia -- first by Chinese astronomers and then, for the first time with a telescope, by Galileo in 1610.

The sunspots appear in roughly 11-year cycles -- increasing to a daily flurry and then subsiding drastically, before amping up again. But this cycle -- dubbed cycle 24 -- has surprised scientists with its sluggishness. The number of spots counted since it kicked off in December 2008 is well below the average observed over the last 250 years. In fact, it's less than half.

 
Scientists witness massive gamma-ray burst, don't understand it
Science-Astronomy
November 22, 2013
massive gamma ray burst

An exploded star some 3.8 billion light-years away is forcing scientists to overhaul much of what they thought they knew about gamma-ray bursts – intense blasts of radiation triggered, in this case, by a star tens of times more massive than the sun that exhausted its nuclear fuel, exploded, then collapsed to form a black hole.

Last April, gamma rays from the blast struck detectors in gamma-ray observatories orbiting Earth, triggering a frenzy of space- and ground-based observations. Many of them fly in the face of explanations researchers have developed during the past 30 years for the processes driving the evolution of a burst from flash to fade out, according to four research papers appearing Friday in the journal Science. -- "Some of our theories are just going down the drain,” said Charles Dermer, an astrophysicist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and a member of one of the teams reporting on their observations of the burst, known as GRB 130427A.

 
Russian fireball shows meteor risk may be bigger
Science-Astronomy
November 06, 2013
meteor risk
Scientists studying the terrifying meteor that exploded without warning over a Russian city last winter say the threat of space rocks smashing into Earth is bigger than they thought.

Meteors about the size of the one that streaked through the sky at 42,000 mph and burst over Chelyabinsk in February — and ones even larger and more dangerous — are probably four, five or even seven times more likely to hit the planet than scientists believed before the fireball, according to three studies published Wednesday in the journals Nature and Science.
 
Two billion planets in our galaxy may be suitable for life
Science-Astronomy
November 04, 2013
life outside earth
Our galaxy probably contains at least two billion planets that, like Earth, have liquid water on their surfaces and orbit around their parent stars in the "habitable zone" for life. The nearest, according to astronomers, could be a mere 12 light years away.

A new study, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggests that Earth-like planets capable of supporting life are far more common than previously thought. Using measurements from Nasa's Kepler space observatory, scientists led by Erik Petigura the University of California, Berkely, estimated that 22% of our galaxy's sun-like stars had rocky planets circling them that were within the zone that meant they got roughly the same amount of light energy as Earth gets from the sun. There are around 100bn stars in our galaxy, of which 10% are like the sun.
 
Earth Will Have a Close Encounter With ‘Doomsday Rock’ at 14:30 EST, October 26, 2028
Science-Astronomy
November 04, 2013
doomsday asteroid
The Earth, and our closest neighbor the Moon are covered with pockmarks from historical asteroid strikes. Dozens of movies show intrepid heroes blowing them up and saving the Earth, but in real life we don’t yet have a system in place that would give us a reprieve should one of these space rocks come our way.

In 2028, asteroid 1997XF11 will pass extremely close to our planet. NASA predicts it will miss, and I really hope they are right. But what will happen to Earth if they’re not? 1997XF11 was discovered by Jim Scotti of the University of Arizona during the Spacewatch program. Further studies of the asteroid revealed that there will be a particularly close pass in October 2028.
 
28 solar flares in the last seven days, and more may be coming
Science-Astronomy
November 01, 2013
solar flare 2013
The sun has erupted more than two dozen times over the last week, sending radiation and solar material hurtling through space - and scientists say more eruptions may be coming.

This shouldn't be unusual. After all, we are technically at solar maximum, the peak of the 11-year cycle of the sun's activity. But this has been a noticeably mellow solar maximum, with the sun staying fairly quiet throughout the summer. So when our life-giving star suddenly let loose with 24 medium strength M-class solar flares and four significantly stronger X-class flares between Oct.  23 and Oct. 30, it felt like a surprise. Many of the flares originated from sunspot AR1884, a particularly active region of the sun that is currently facing Earth, almost at the center of the star. If this region stays active, it will continue to hurl radiation and solar material our way for about another week until it rotates out of sight.
 
Pitch Black : The Next "Carrington Event"
Science-Astronomy
October 30, 2013
The next ‘Carrington event’ will send the world to pitch black as we are plunged into darkness as the power grids fail – wiping out much of humanity. Sound like science fiction? Think again. There is apparently a one in eight chance that it could happen within 10 years… [MODERNSURVIVALBLOG]
 
When they’ve Killed All The Humans Viruses Will Rule The World
Science-Astronomy
October 30, 2013
contagion viruses
Much is said about the demise of the human race. Asteroids,total failure of the electrical grid, a new super disease or even a total economic collapse. Some or all of these may be the trigger, but I really think that at the end of the day, whatever the trigger is, the final cause will be a virus.

These microscopic invaders are the epitome of adaptability. They are able to mutate at the drop of a hat, they cannot be wiped out by antibiotics…even if there were any left that still worked properly, and they reside in all areas of the globe. They are the ultimate survivors. In 2006 a never virus reared it’s ugly little head. Rhinovirus C is very similar to the known rhinoviruses A and B. These germs are responsible for the common cold. The difference with the C strain is that it doesn’t culture easily, and if you can’t culture it, you can’t find a cure for it. [LINK]
 
How the U.N. plans to defend Earth from asteroids
Science-Astronomy
October 29, 2013
stop asteroid impact
t's a scenario familiar to any science fiction fan: An asteroid is hurtling toward Earth, and humans must deflect or destroy it to save themselves and every other living creature on the planet. But unlike most sci-fi plots, this one is a real threat, right now. And the United Nations is on it.

Last week, the U.N. General Assembly approved the creation of an International Asteroid Warning Group. Former NASA astronaut Ed Lu and other members of the Association of Space Explorers have been calling for the formation of a global asteroid-fighting group for years, but the meteor that exploded above Chelyabinsk, Russia, in February got people taking the ASE's recommendations seriously.
 
Sun Erupts With Two Major Solar Flares (Video)
Science-Astronomy
October 25, 2013
This image, captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on March 10, 2012, shows an active region on the sun, seen as the bright spot to the right. Designated AR 1429, the spot has so far produced three X-class flares and numerous M-class flares.

The sun erupted with two of the strongest solar flares it can unleash Friday (Oct. 25), just days after blasting an intense solar storm at Earth.

The sun fired off a flare that registered at X1.7 on the space weather scale at 4:01 a.m. EDT (0801 GMT) Friday, then followed with an X.2-class event at 11:03 a.m. EDT (1503 GMT). NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured video of the X1.7 solar flare, which came after several smaller sun storms over the last few days.

 
'Space cannon' to be fired into asteroid
Science-Astronomy
October 24, 2013
space cannon asteroid

Japan's space agency has successfully test-fired a "space cannon" designed to launch a projectile into an asteroid as part of the search for the origins of the universe. The device will be aboard the Hayabusa-2 space probe that is scheduled to take off in 2014 and rendezvous with an asteroid identified as 1999JU3 that orbits between Earth and Mars in 2018.

Once in position close to the asteroid, the space cannon will detach itself and remotely fire a 4lb metal projectile into the surface of the miniature planet. -- "An artificial crater that can be created by the device is expected to be a small one, a few meters in diameter, but ... by acquiring samples from the surface that is exposed by the collision, we can get fresh samples that are less weathered by the space environment or heat," the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency said in a statement.

 
Two large earth facing sunspots give us both barrels, incoming storm expected
Science-Astronomy
October 23, 2013
october 2013 sunspots

Sunspot 1875 lit off a small solar flare directly at the Earth. The magnetic explosion it released caused another nearby sunspot 1877 to also explode with a M9.3 magnitude solar flare. Both of these flares are Earth directed, and a geomagnetic storm is expected to impact the earth in the next 24-48 hours.

The size of the incoming geomagnetic storm is undetermined so far, but there is a good chance it will be a Major-severe Geomagnetic Storm. The speed of the storm is also undetermined, but based off of previous Earth directed storms could reach us withing 48 hours.

 
Let's play God: The scientific experiments that might save the world (or destroy it...)
Science-Astronomy
October 19, 2013
science playing god destroy world
Two years ago this month, in a disused Norfolk airfield, a small group of scientists were preparing to undertake one of the more controversial experiments in British scientific history. What little equipment it needed – a B&Q pressure washer, 1km of hydraulic hose and an 8m air balloon – had been bought or loaned. A truck was ready. Once in the air, the dirigible balloon would spray 120 litres of fine water droplets into the East Anglia sky, a miniaturised test for a much larger system that would eventually pump out chemical particles to reflect sunlight and, so the scientists calculated, cool the planet. It was to be a momentous day.

Geoengineering – as defined by the Royal Society in 2009 – is the large-scale, technological manipulation of the climate (some call it "planet hacking"). After decades of theorising, the Cambridge group was going to be the first in the West to take research out of doors. But shortly before lift-off, they aborted. There was, they feared, no way of knowing who could use their research, or in what way, and the Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (Spice) team did not want to open a door that might be impossible to close.
 
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